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sambunmi3
Jun 07, 2022
In Psychopathy
An estimated 9% of Americans have a personality disorder, like narcissistic personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, or avoidant personality disorder. According to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, there are 10 personality disorders, which primarily affect a person's sense of self, identity, and relationships. A person may develop a personality disorder as a coping mechanism for extreme or excessive abuse, abandonment, ridicule, neglect, or other childhood trauma, Anthony Smith, a licensed mental-health counselor with 17 years of experience diagnosing mental-health conditions in the Massachusetts court system, told Insider. Genes can also play a role. For example, someone with borderline personality disorder may have experienced significant abandonment as a child, like if their parent went to prison for life or consistently failed to provide emotional support. As a result, they internalize the belief that everyone will leave them and, when triggered, act based on that overriding fear, Smith previously told Insider. In the DSM-5, each of the 10 personality disorders fall under one of three "clusters" because people with them may have similar behaviors, ways of thinking, or predispositions of other mental-health problems, Smith said. People in cluster A tend to exhibit semipsychotic and anxiety-driven behaviors, while those in cluster B may struggle more with anxiety and mood disorders (like bipolar disorder ), impulse-control conditions, eating disorders, and substance abuse, according to Smith. Those in cluster C are also prone to anxiety, depression and substance abuse. Only licensed mental-health professionals can diagnose someone with a personality disorder. Experts may start to notice traits and behaviors that could signal a personality disorder when a person is in their teens, but most people aren't diagnosed until adulthood. Since personality disorders tend to stem from early-in-life relational trauma, people who are diagnosed with one may also be diagnosed with another or exhibit overlapping traits, Smith said. Researchers are still studying the causes of personality disorders and don't have definitive answers. Causes could include consistent neglect, abuse, or ridicule from a caretaker, being raised by someone who lacks boundaries and accountability or is overindulgent, or being raised by someone who doesn't prioritize relationships. With cluster A disorders, a family history of psychotic disorders could have an effect. Smith added that personality disorder traits may manifest differently in men versus women.
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sambunmi3
Jun 05, 2022
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sambunmi3
Jun 04, 2022
In Depression
How to Be a Happy Introvert(The West prizes extroversion, yet faking traits poisons well-being.) Much has been said about ties between extroversion and happiness that need not be restated here. It is true that extroverts tend toward higher degrees of pleasurable experience, on average. Extroverts tend to be more driven to seek out experiences and may even receive a neurophysiological reward for doing so. Extroverts also tend to have a more positive disposition, on balance. Having personalities that more epitomize Western cultural values, extroverts may not only be more comfortable in Western society, but may, indeed, benefit in overall well-being. Carl Jung, the Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who worked to develop these eminently useful concepts, wrote that extroverts modulate their own attitude in relating to others and give extraordinary attention to the effect they have on others. Like adventurers fulfilling manifest destiny, extroverts explore the world of the other in a verbally assertive way, distinctive from more verbally conservative introverts who, like many in Eastern cultures, may be more apt to refrain from expressing thoughts and feelings for the sake of interpersonal diplomacy and in managing an economy of psychological energy. Western cultures say, “Be more extroverted” Ashley Fulmer, from the University of Maryland, and fellow researchers (2010), proposed a “person-culture match hypothesis,” predicting that when a person’s personality matches the prevalent personalities of other people in a culture, culture functions as an important amplifier of the positive effect of personality on self-esteem and subjective well-being. The team's research studied more than 7,000 individuals from 28 societies and found that the correlation between extroversion and subjective well-being is much stronger when a person’s degree of extroversion matched the approximate degree of extroversion in their culture. Four studies were conducted by Nathan Hudson and Brent Roberts (2014) of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to examine individuals’ goals to change their personality traits. They found that, staggeringly, in the West, 87 percent of people explicitly expressed a goal of becoming more extroverted. Scott Barry Kaufman (2018), digested a lot of research about introversion and came to the conclusion, “The biggest key to being a happy introvert is simply self-acceptance; not forcing oneself to repeatedly act out of character, or to think of oneself as merely a deviation from an ‘ideal’ personality.” Rodney Lawn and fellow researchers (2019), acknowledged that introverts living in Western cultures experience ongoing pressure to conform to extroverted norms of behavior and may even experience stigma due to a lack of consistency between parts of their personality and the prevailing norms and expectations of their sociocultural environment.
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sambunmi3
Jun 02, 2022
In Mental Disorders
Everybody can have difficulty sitting still, paying attention or controlling impulsive behavior once in a while. For some people, however, the problems are so pervasive and persistent that they interfere with every aspect of their life: home, academic, social and work. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 11 percent of school-age children. Symptoms continue into adulthood in more than three-quarters of cases. ADHD is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. Individuals with ADHD can be very successful in life. However, without identification and proper treatment, ADHD may have serious consequences, including school failure, family stress and disruption, depression, problems with relationships, substance abuse, delinquency, accidental injuries and job failure. Early identification and treatment are extremely important. Medical science first documented children exhibiting inattentiveness, impulsivity and hyperactivity in 1902. Since that time, the disorder has been given numerous names, including minimal brain dysfunction, hyperkinetic reaction of childhood, and attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity. With the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) classification system, the disorder has been renamed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or ADHD. The current name reflects the importance of the inattention aspect of the disorder as well as the other characteristics of the disorder such as hyperactivity and impulsivity. Symptoms: The DSM-5 lists three presentations of ADHD—Predominantly Inattentive, Hyperactive-Impulsive and Combined. The symptoms for each are adapted and summarized below. ADHD predominantly inattentive presentation Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes Has difficulty sustaining attention Does not appear to listen Struggles to follow through with instructions Has difficulty with organization Avoids or dislikes tasks requiring sustained mental effort Loses things Is easily distracted Is forgetful in daily activities ADHD predominantly hyperactive-impulsive presentation Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in chair Has difficulty remaining seated Runs about or climbs excessively in children; extreme restlessness in adults Difficulty engaging in activities quietly Acts as if driven by a motor; adults will often feel inside as if they are driven by a motor Talks excessively Blurts out answers before questions have been completed Difficulty waiting or taking turns Interrupts or intrudes upon others ADHD combined presentation The individual meets the criteria for both inattention and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD presentations. These symptoms can change over time, so children may fit different presentations as they get older. Causes: Despite multiple studies, researchers have yet to determine the exact causes of ADHD. However, scientists have discovered a strong genetic link since ADHD can run in families. More than 20 genetic studies have shown evidence that ADHD is strongly inherited. Yet ADHD is a complex disorder, which is the result of multiple interacting genes.
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sambunmi3
Jun 01, 2022
In Questions & Answers
Differential Association Theory (Edwin Sutherland): - states that people learn to engage in crime. This learning results from interactions from others and often occurs in small intimate groups. People learn criminal techniques, motives, attitudes and rationalisations, and also learn to de-value conventional values and morals. Differences in association with criminals and non-criminals varies in duration, intensity, frequency and priority. - essentially criminal behaviour is learnt as anything else is. It is a response to the same cultural needs and values as non-criminal behaviour Agnew General Strain Theory: - conceptualises how people respond to 'strain'. Strain causes negative feelings (e.g. fear, despair, defeat). Because of this people become angry and blame their circumstances on others. This anger leads to lowered inhibitions and creates a desire for revenge. - essentially those who are subjected to repeated 'strain' are more likely to be antisocial and/or commit crimes - anger is used to justify criminal and/or antisocial activities - Increase in strain = increase in anger = increase in crime - coping strategies can stop people under 'strain' becoming delinquent Early Criminological Theory (Lombroso) - influenced by Darwinism - criminals are born not made (atavism) --> started after an autopsy of a convict --> identified several common physical characteristics between criminals --> introduced idea of commonality and behavioural determinism in criminals - made a checklist of physical features that were quantifiable by measurement to determine criminals e.g. small slopping forehead, large protruding ears, high cheekbones etc. --> developed a particular set of characteristics for each kind of criminal e.g. murder looked different to a sexual offender - "born criminal" descende from a degenerate family with frequency of insanity, deafness, syphilis, epilepsy and alcoholism - tattoo rational - out of 89 tattooed persons, 71 had been tattooed in prison - criminals have tattoos and a higher tolerance to pain Emilie Durkheim And anomie Theory: - crime occurs as a result of breakdown of social cohesion; leads to anomie Robert Merton and Strain Theory: - criminal behaviour resulted from a lack of integration between social ambitions and goals and the means to achieve the goals Howard Becker and Labelling theory: - some people are labeled deviant and associated this label as their primary status, they accept the label and act accordingly Travis Hirschi and Social Control Theory: - Everyone has the potential to be law violating, hover, fear ('social control') deters most people because they do not want to jeopardise the social bonds they have with others Freud - Id, Ego, Superego (criminals/deviant behaviour result of a weak superego) - criminals can be developed through several paths - basic incapacity to be honest - importance of family life, early attachment and development
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sambunmi3
May 31, 2022
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sambunmi3
May 29, 2022
In Forensic Psychology
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex condition. It affects how a person feels about themselves and others. BPD is characterized by intense, unstable emotions and relationships as well as insecurity and self-doubt. BPD makes everything about a person feel unstable, ranging from moods, thinking, behavior, relationships, and sometimes identity. People with this condition have described BPD as the feeling of having an exposed nerve ending, essentially leaving someone to be easily triggered by small things. But there are effective treatments for it. What Causes Borderline Personality Disorder? BPD may be caused by genetics, brain abnormalities, and/or environmental factors. Due to the wide variety of suspected risk factors, it’s hard to determine who will develop it. Environmental Factors Early childhood adversity, such as child abuse or neglect, may be a cause. Genetics Research suggests that it may be an inherited genetic condition or linked with other mental disorders among other family members. Brain Abnormalities Certain brain differences are thought to be contributing causes of the disorder. When certain brain chemicals responsible for mood regulation don’t function properly, there are changes in some areas of the brain. This has been linked to aggression, difficulty regulating destructive urges, and depression. BPD Doesn’t Often Occur Alone Effective treatment involves addressing related disorders. Many people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder experience other conditions, including: Depression Anxiety disorders Eating disorders Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Bipolar disorder Substance use disorder
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sambunmi3
May 27, 2022
In Forensic Psychology
You can be an expert on brains and spend 30 years studying mental disorders, and it still will not prepare you for your own madness. Expertise won’t explain why you no longer recognize your house or car, or why you’ve gone for a morning jog with a plastic bag full of purple henna on your head and have no idea where you are, even though this is your own neighborhood, your own streets, and these are the trees and flowers you pass every day. If anyone should have been able to recognize the changes in her own behavior and connect them to transformations in her brain, it was Barbara Lipska. As a neuroscientist and director of the Human Brain Collection Core at the National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Maryland, Lipska has poked, prodded, examined, sliced, diced, and analyzed countless brains, trying to find the distinctions between sickness and health. Yet when she lost her own mind in 2015, Lipska didn’t know that things were going awry. Neither did her family of doctors. “We were completely oblivious to it,” she says. Now, Lipska has to check sometimes to make sure she’s thinking clearly. “I’m terrified. I won’t see it when it happens. I watch myself. I ask questions of my family,” she says. “Am I sane? Am I logical? Am I making sense? How would I know? It’s a terrifying experience.” Visit this link to read more on Barbara lipska story. https://qz.com/1423416/a-neuroscientist-who-lost-her-mind-explains-the-brain/
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sambunmi3
May 25, 2022
In Psychopathy
Signs and symptoms of Munchausen's syndrome may include pretending to be ill or self-harming to aggravate or induce illness. There are 4 main ways people with Munchausen's syndrome fake or induce illnesses, including: lying about symptoms – for example, choosing symptoms that are difficult to disprove, such as having a severe headache or pretending to have a seizure or to pass out tampering with test results – for example, heating a thermometer to suggest a fever or adding blood to a urine sample self-infliction – for example, cutting or burning themselves, poisoning themselves with drugs, or eating food contaminated with bacteria aggravating conditions – for example, rubbing faeces (poo) into wounds to cause an infection, or reopening previously healed wounds
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sambunmi3
May 23, 2022
In Forensic Psychology
Most offenders didn’t display pattern of crime related to mental illness symptoms over their lifetime, according to a study by the American psychological Association. In a study of crimes committed by people with serious mental disorders, only 7.5 percent were directly related to symptoms of mental illness, according to new research published by the American Psychological Association. Researchers analyzed 429 crimes committed by 143 offenders with three major types of mental illness and found that 3 percent of their crimes were directly related to symptoms of major depression, 4 percent to symptoms of schizophrenia disorders and 10 percent to symptoms of bipolar disorder. “When we hear about crimes committed by people with mental illness, they tend to be big headline-making crimes so they get stuck in people’s heads,” said lead researcher Jillian Peterson, PhD. “The vast majority of people with mental illness are not violent, not criminal and not dangerous.” The study was conducted with former defendants of a mental health court in Minneapolis. The participants completed a two-hour interview about their criminal history and mental health symptoms, covering an average of 15 years. The study, published online in the APA journal Law and Human Behavior, may be the first to analyze the connection between crime and mental illness symptoms for offenders over an extended period of their lives, said Peterson, a psychology professor at Normandale Community College in Bloomington, Minn. The study didn’t find any predictable patterns linking criminal conduct and mental illness symptoms over time. Two-thirds of the offenders who had committed crimes directly related to their mental illness symptoms also had committed unrelated crimes for other reasons, such as poverty, unemployment, homelessness and substance abuse, according to the research. “Is there a small group of people with mental illness committing crimes again and again because of their symptoms? We didn’t find that in this study,” Peterson said. In the United States, more than 1.2 million people with mental illness are incarcerated in jails or prisons, according to the federal Bureau of Justice Statistics. People with mental illnesses also are on probation or parole at two to four times the rate for the general population. In addition to interviews with offenders, the researchers reviewed criminal history and social worker files to help rate crimes based on their association with symptoms of schizophrenia disorders (hallucinations and delusions), bipolar disorder (impulsivity and risk-taking behavior) or major depression (hopelessness and suicidal thoughts). The ratings were: no relationship between mental illness symptoms and the crime, mostly unrelated, mostly related or directly related. A crime could be rated as mostly unrelated or mostly related to mental illness symptoms if those symptoms contributed to the cause of the crime but weren’t solely responsible for it. For example, an offender with schizophrenia who was agitated because he heard voices earlier in the day later got into a bar fight, but he wasn’t hearing voices at the time of the altercation, so the crime was categorized as mostly related. When the directly related and mostly related categories were combined, the percentage of crimes attributed to mental illness symptoms increased from 7.5 percent to 18 percent, or less than 1 in 5 of the crimes analyzed in the study. Of crimes committed by participants with bipolar disorder, 62 percent were directly or mostly related to symptoms, compared with 23 percent for schizophrenia and 15 percent for depression. Some participants may have described their mood as “manic” during a crime even though they could have just been angry or abusing drugs or alcohol, so the percentage of crimes attributed to bipolar disorder may be inflated, Peterson said. Almost two-thirds of the study participants were male, with an average age of 40. They were evenly divided between white and black offenders (42 percent each, 16 percent other races), and 85 percent had substance abuse disorders. The study did not include offenders with serious violent offenses because the mental health court did not adjudicate those crimes, but the participants did describe other violent crimes they had committed. The study also did not examine how substance abuse interacted with mental illness to influence criminal behavior. The researchers said programs designed to reduce recidivism for all offenders after incarceration, including drug treatment and housing and employment support, Peterson said.
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sambunmi3
May 23, 2022
In Forensic Psychology
There are a wide variety of careers in forensic psychology. Here are five traits that can help you achieve success, no matter which career you choose 1.Strong Communication Skills 2.The Ability to Maintain Objectivity 3.Critical Thinking Skills 4.Attention to Detail 5.Compassion: This trait may seem like it conflicts with previous traits we’ve outlined, like maintaining objectivity. However, a good forensic psychologist cares for the people they work with and for. This is one of the many complexities of working as a forensic psychologist—balancing professional needs while performing work that requires attention and care for the human condition. There’s a difference between letting your emotions distract from the job and wanting the best outcome for an inmate, or ensuring that a victim’s voice is heard in trial.
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sambunmi3
May 21, 2022
In Forensic Psychology
Do Juvenile Murderers Deserve Life Without Parole? The U.S. Supreme Court answered this question in two recent decisions (Miller v. Alabama, 2012; Montgomery v. Louisiana, 2016). "Rarely," the Court said, and only when developmental evidence shows that the juvenile is "irreparably corrupt." Moreover, in juvenile homicide cases, developmental evidence must now guide courts' assignment of lesser sentences than life with parole as well. In their article recently published in Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, Grisso and Kavanaugh (2016) (PDF, 112KB) examine sentencing of juveniles from the developmental perspective described in these two decisions, offering guidance to judges, attorneys, and experts who provide developmental evidence in juvenile homicide cases. The U.S. Supreme Court decisions were strongly influenced by psychological and neuroscience research, offering evidence that adolescents typically are less developmentally mature in their decision making than adults. This makes them potentially less culpable for their crimes. (For a review, see Steinberg & Scott, 2003). The Miller decision noted that juveniles in homicide cases should be allowed to offer evidence that they are less deserving of the maximum penalty. Therefore, the Court said, mandatory life without parole (LWOP) for juvenile homicide violates the Eighth Amendment's prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment. Evidence for a juvenile's developmental immaturity should be taken into account if the state seeks an LWOP sentence and in deciding on lesser sentences as well. Montgomery made Miller retroactive. This will require re-sentencing or parole hearings for all persons (believed to be more than 2,000) now serving mandatory LWOP sentences for homicide committed while they were adolescents. But what developmental evidence will be relevant? While answering this question, Grisso and Kavanaugh explained why psychology and psychiatry probably cannot offer courts anything of value for determining whether a youth is "irreparably corrupt," devoid of any potential for future change. They are more optimistic, however, about developmental experts' assistance to courts when choosing among lesser sentences. Grisso and Kavanaugh analyzed the developmental factors described by the U.S. Supreme Court, then identified parallels in developmental research on adolescents. Most important will be a "decisional" factor, focusing on juveniles' greater tendency for sensation-seeking, risk-taking, and poor judgment, and a "dependency" factor that points to the effects of childhood abuse and trauma that youths could do nothing about. Both factors will need to be applied in an examination of their potential role in the offense itself. In addition, developmental evidence about the youth's potential for rehabilitation will be important. Grisso and Kavanaugh review the state of the art, regarding developmental experts' abilities to provide such evidence on a case-by-case basis in juvenile homicide cases. Their conclusions are encouraging, although the field's prospects fall short on many points, requiring further work on relevant developmental assessment methods.
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sambunmi3
May 18, 2022
In Forensic Psychology
The DNA Evidence May Not Save You More than 330 people have been exonerated by post-conviction DNA testing, unequivocally proving their innocence. False confessions, a narrative admission to a criminal act that one did not commit, have been a contributing factor in approximately 25% of the DNA exoneration cases (The Innocence Project). For people who are wrongfully accused of a crime, pretrial DNA testing of blood, hair, saliva, semen, and other biological traces can serve as a valuable safeguard against wrongful conviction. Cases like that of Jeffrey Deskovic, however, suggest that confession evidence — even when false — may be persuasive enough to overpower exculpatory DNA. After a lengthy and manipulative interrogation, then-16-year-old Deskovic confessed to the rape and murder of a high school classmate. Prior to trial, DNA testing of the semen recovered from the victim excluded Deskovic as the perpetrator. Yet he was prosecuted and convicted by a jury. At trial, prosecutors theorized that the victim had prior consensual sex with an "unknown and unidentified boyfriend" and that Deskovic, who had confessed to rape and murder, killed her after failing to ejaculate. Deskovic was convicted in 1991 and released 15 years later when the DNA was matched to a convicted murderer who eventually pled guilty (Santos, 2006). In a legal system that purports to contain numerous safeguards to protect the falsely accused, the foregoing series of events may seem highly atypical. However, in 2010, The Center for Wrongful Convictions identified 19 cases in which confessors to rape and/or murder were tried and convicted despite having been excluded by DNA tests of key biological materials; since that time, additional cases have been reported and critiqued (Drizin & Riley, 2014; Goode, 2011; Martin, 2011). In arguing each of these cases, the prosecutor proposed a speculative theory to explain away the mismatched confession and exculpatory DNA. Although these case outcomes are counterintuitive, they are not surprising. Previous research shows that both confessions and DNA are highly persuasive forms of incriminating evidence. Yet, little research has compared contradictory self-report and scientific evidence in the same trial, and, when it has, the results have been mixed. Thus, in a recently published article in Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, Appleby and Kassin (2016) (PDF, 171KB) designed a series of studies to test people's perceptions of guilt in cases in which the scientific evidence (in the form of DNA) and the self-report evidence (in the form of eyewitnesses and confessions) contradict each other, a contradiction sometimes accompanied by a prosecutor's explanatory theory. Participants read a case summary about the rape and murder of a 16-year-old girl and the resulting police investigation. Study 1 varied the type of self-report (defendant statement or eyewitness), whether that self-report was incriminating or exculpatory, and DNA that was either incriminating or exculpatory. Studies 2 and 3 examined how people react to the same evidentiary contradiction (confession vs. exculpatory DNA) when the evidence was accompanied by the prosecutor's argument that the exculpatory DNA evidence merely indicated that the victim had prior consensual sex with an unidentified man. Participants rendered a verdict, rated their confidence in that verdict, estimated the likelihood that the defendant committed the crime, and rated how convincing of guilt they found each of the pieces of evidence. In Study 1, participants' perceptions of guilt were overwhelmingly influenced by whether the DNA results were incriminating or exculpatory; this preference was exhibited in verdicts, confidence ratings, and probability-of-commission estimates. In Studies 2 and 3, the introduction of a prosecutorial theory that sought to reconcile the apparent contradiction in the evidence significantly increased the conviction rate. Using an undergraduate sample, in Study 2, the introduction of a prosecutorial theory increased the conviction rate from 10% to 33%. Using a sample of community adults, Study 3 replicated these findings: a prosecutorial A second means of countering the inherent power of confession evidence is to admit testimony from experts. At present, U.S. courts differ in their willingness to admit such testimony.
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sambunmi3
May 17, 2022
In Forensic Psychology
Automatism is an excuse defense against criminal liability for defendants who committed a presumptively criminal act in a state of unconsciousness, semiconsciousness, or unawareness. Medically, the term automatism refers to motor behavior that is automatic, undirected, and not consciously controlled. The use of automatism as a legal defense is relatively rare and is typically claimed in cases where the defendant’s conscious awareness is compromised by epilepsy, brain injury, somnambulism (sleepwalking), or trauma. The automatism defense is recognized as a viable defense in U.S. and British courts, but the definitions and applications of the defense vary widely and are often inconsistent. The basis for the defense is that a defendant should not be held responsible for presumptively criminal actions because of the involuntary nature of the behaviors, leading to lack of criminal intent and voluntary criminal action.
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sambunmi3
May 16, 2022
In Forensic Psychology
The use of hypnosis to enhance the memory of a witness to a crime often results not only in some additional accurate recall of information about the event but also in the incorporation of additional misinformation into the witness’s memory of the event and a general increase in his or her confidence in the veracity of recall. Research has shown that hypnosis increases the amount of information that is recalled about an event. This effect often occurs with other techniques also, such as the cognitive interview. When techniques such as hypnosis and the cognitive interview are used to enhance a witness’s memory, the amount of new information recalled turns out to be a mixture of accurate and inaccurate information. Furthermore, once accurate and inaccurate information get mixed into a coherent narrative, the witness is typically not very good at distinguishing those aspects of the story that are true from those that are false. The additional information will make the narrative the witness is trying to construct more coherent, and his or her confidence in it will increase. The witness’s memory has not been refreshed. A more coherent narrative has been constructed that the witness feels is a more accurate representation of the event he or she is being encouraged to remember. Admissibility of Hypnotically Refreshed Testimony The problems associated with hypnotically refreshed testimony have been recognized in hundreds of decisions by American courts. In 1987, the U.S. Supreme Court considered the admissibility of hypnotically refreshed testimony in Rock v. Arkansas. Following the per se exclusionary rule, the trial judge in this case determined that the hypnotically refreshed memories of the defendant were inadmissible. There was a growing trend in state courts at the time toward total exclusion of hypnotically refreshed testimony. In Rock v. Arkansas, the Supreme Court acknowledged that the possibility for contamination of the witness’s memory increases significantly when attempts are made to hypnotically refresh the witness’s memory; however, the court determined that the per se exclusionary rule cannot be applied if in doing so a defendant is denied his or her constitutional right to testify. State courts that have to deal with this kind of testimony generally recognize the problems associated with it and often apply the per se exclusionary rule to the hypnotically refreshed testimony of wit-nesses other than the defendant. Those courts that do not follow the per se exclusionary rule are usually willing to allow hypnotically refreshed testimony only if certain safeguards have been adhered to in the conduct of the hypnotic interview. Theories of Hypnosis A number of different theories have been proposed regarding the nature of the hypnotic experience and its relation to the behavior of the hypnotized subject. There are several characteristics of the hypnotic state that distinguish it from the normal waking state. Ernest Hilgard has proposed the following list: increased suggestibility, enhanced imagery and imagination, subsidence of the planning function, and reduction in reality testing. Hilgard contends that hypnotic phenomena often reflect a split in consciousness. It appears that the experience of the hypnotized subject is dissociated from the subsystems of control that are regulating the subject’s perceptions and behavior. The major alternative to this point of view is sociocognitive theory. The emphasis in sociocognitive theory is on the social psychological relationship between the hypnotist and the subject. According to this theory, there is no need to propose that the subject has entered into some kind of trance state or that some kind of split in consciousness has occurred; the hypnotized subject is engaged in the performance of a role in a social situation that is largely under the control of the hypnotist. Hilgard acknowledges the fundamental importance of the social psychological aspect of hypnotic phenomena, but he contends that changes in consciousness occur when a subject is hypnotized that cannot be accounted for by efforts on the part of a compliant subject to please the hypnotist. In their theory of dissociated control, Erik Woody and Kenneth Bowers propose that hypnotized subjects are in a state temporarily like that of patients with frontal lobe damage. According to their theory, the perceptions and behavior of the hypnotized subject are under the regulation of lower-level subconscious systems that are not being monitored by the frontal lobe executive. If hypnotized subjects process information primarily at a subconscious level, then the kinds of rules that are applied in the evaluation of information by hypnotized subjects are likely to be very different from those applied in the conscious rational analysis of information. Seymour Epstein has provided considerable support for the idea that much of the information processing that occurs in our everyday lives consists of rapid evaluations of environmental stimuli that depend largely on subconscious schemata associated with emotionally significant past events. What we might have with hypnosis is an exaggeration of this aspect of normal experience. If the subconscious experiential system dominates information processing during hypnosis, then what may occur is not that missing material gets dragged up from the unconscious to fill in the gaps in memory but that the gaps in memory are filled in with plausible information that is suggested either directly or indirectly during the hypnotic interview. It turns out that hypnosis tends to produce this kind of effect whenever the subject is required to produce a narrative reconstruction of a highly emotional event. In studies that employ stimuli of low emotional impact, hypnosis does not produce an increase in the amount of information recalled. Furthermore, it is with free recall that we see the effect of hypnosis on the amount of information recalled; when specific questions are asked or when the subject is asked to decide between various alternatives, responses are restricted so that the tendency to produce more is not revealed.
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sambunmi3
May 12, 2022
In Forensic Psychology
An understanding of the criminal mind is one of the most useful tools in solving crimes, which becomes apparent in these five famous cases cracked by forensic psychologists. Although techniques are becoming more sophisticated every year, forensic psychology has a long and storied history. 1. Ted Bundy A psychologist could spend a lifetime examining the twisted mind of Ted Bundy, one of America’s most notorious and charismatic killers. Luckily, several forensic psychologists used their expertise to crack this famous case. Over time, Ted Bundy’s brutal attacks and killings became less careful and more frequent. Their psychological profile, which benefited greatly from a former girlfriend’s information, eventually ended the nationwide manhunt for Bundy and even linked him to other unsolved murders. 2. John Wayne Gacy Although complaints and suspicions from neighbors were ultimately what ended “killer clown” John Wayne Gacy’s shocking killing spree, forensic psychologists ensured that the culprit in this famous case didn’t go free on a bogus insanity plea. Through a series of interviews, psychologists on the case were able to determine that Gacy’s murders involved premeditation and a detailed plan to hide his victims bodies. Without forensic psychologists assistance in this case, traumatized families may have never experienced the satisfaction of seeing Gacy punished for his crimes. 3. Explosions at Radio City Music Hall An ongoing series of bombings at New York City’s famed Radio City Music Hall is an intriguing case that’s often forgotten these days. This case, which involved more than a dozen explosions between 1940 and 1950, proved so problematic for police that it was one of the inspirations for the development of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Psychologist James Brussel was able to determine that due to the intricacy and knowledge of the explosive devices, the bomber was almost definitely an engineer, most likely at Con Edison. This profile directed the police towards George Metesky. The remarkable accuracy and efficacy of the forensic psychologist’s profile increased the demand for these experts across the nation. 4. Aileen Wuornos The case of serial killer Aileen Wuornos, who you might know as the inspiration for Charlize Theron’s mesmerizing performance in “Monster,” may have never been solved without a famous use of forensic psychology. Psychologists were able to determine a consistent motivation for Wuorno’s killings–her intense fear of losing her relationship with her long-time partner Tyria Moore. This profile proved to be incredibly accurate when each of Wuornos’s killings was later linked to rocky periods and short-term separations between the lovers. 5. Andrei Chikatilo Andrei Chikatilo’s reign of terror had Russian police mystified for more than two decades, until it became one of these famous cases cracked by forensic psychologists. To date, Chikatilo has been linked with the murders of 53 Russian women and children. Growing frustrated with the lack of promising leads, Viktor Burakov, the case’s chief investigator decided to employ a new method. He enlisted Dr. Alexander Bukhanovsky’s help in compiling a psychological profile for the killer. This information proved invaluable in narrowing down their list of suspects down to Chikatilo himself, who confessed to his horrific crimes in 1990.
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sambunmi3
May 10, 2022
In Forensic Psychology
Attention to Detail. Many forensic psychology jobs rely on perceptive observations and analysis. Observing body language and being especially attuned to a range of communication styles is imperative. If you work in corrections, responsibilities often include handling crisis management and counseling with inmates.
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sambunmi3
May 09, 2022
In Forensic Psychology
Although many people with an interest in forensic psychology have a parallel interest in forensic science, the two terms are not synonymous. Forensic science has a foundation in the “hard” sciences and involves laboratory-based investigation of crime scene evidence, such as DNA collection and analysis, taking fingerprints, and examination of firearms and bullets. Forensic psychology, on the other hand, is defined by the American Board of Forensic Psychology as “the application of the science and profession of psychology to questions and issues relating to law and the legal system.” Essentially, forensic psychologists specialize in applying psychological knowledge to situations within a legal context.
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sambunmi3
May 07, 2022
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sambunmi3
May 06, 2022
In Forensic Psychology
*Apply psychology to the criminal justice system *Assess offenders’ state of mind at time of offense *Assess competency of individuals to stand trial *Assess risk of re-offending *Assess witness credibility *Evaluate child custody in divorce *Prepare for and provide testimony in court *Assess consistency of factual information across multiple sources *Advise police on mental illness and criminal psychology *Consult with attorneys on mental health issues in the court system *Work with at-risk populations such as trauma survivors *Design correctional programs
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