What is institutional violence?
Institutional violence is violence when structure of institute have rules and regulations that are against one particular demographic, it can be race, ethnicity and religion. It was first coined by sociologist " Johan Galtung".
For example: Police officer shooting African-Americans just over hunch without any proof. And Police department protects the police officer who killed an innocent man.
Galtung's theory on structural violence is that it is a 'consequence of social conditions,' meaning that a group or institution is responsible for the death or demise of an individual. When this happens over and over to a particular demographic, it becomes more apparent that it is an issue of structural violence. The problem with this is that structural violence is a hybrid concept, meaning that it's part theoretical (hypothetical) and part empirical (evidence).
through gender inequality, racism, discriminatory laws and even religious ideologies based on their response to direct violence. This is what makes revealing structural violence so difficult to prove. While structural violence identifies the victims, it also implicates the demographic responsible for creating those victims, which creates a resistance to accusations of structural violence. Excerpt!
So this website (https://www.ojp.gov/ncjrs/virtual-library/abstracts/institutionalized-violence) defines institutional violence as:
"an established form of interpersonal violence resulting from the existence of such institutions as the police and prisons and from the practices of repressive justice. Such violence emanating from institutions which exercise power may manifest itself in the political, the economic, and the cultural spheres."
Here's a more comprehensive page about it incase this is more helpful too: