The central idea of forensic science is based upon something called Locard's Exchange Principle. In broad terms, this principle states that when an individual interacts with the environment they leave traces of themselves behind - DNA, fingerprints, foot impressions etc. They also leave with parts of the enviornment such as grass, mud etc.
There is a term in tracking named 'spoor'. Spoor is the various signs left by an animal or human being that a tracker can detect such as broken twigs, disturbed foliage, fire remnants etc. In effect, forensic scientists act like trackers picking up on the spoor left behind by criminal.
Part one of forensic science is to observe the physical signs and traces left by the criminal.
Part two of the process involves precise collection, and establishing a chain of custody so that the evidence is not disturbed either by other people or the enviornment - rain etc.
Part three involves analyzing the evidence and providing the investigators with the findings so that they can intrepret the evidence and place the findings within the framework of the investigation.
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Forensic science is used to investigate and analyse crime scenes. Forensic scientists collect data and gather information by using scientific methods to help justice system.
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